LOD and LOI requirement

LOD and LOI and Everything You Need to Know

Are you currently working on a Scan to BIM project? Has your client asked you to produce a BIM model to ‘LOD 400’ or a specific Level of Information? If you don’t understand them thoroughly, then you may create the wrong model compared with the client’s requirements. So it’s necessary to understand the LOD and LOI requirements.

So what it really means and how do we meet all LOD and LOI requirements? Read on to find the answers or ask our BIM consultant to help you.

1. What are BIM LOD and other acronyms

In reality, there are several acronyms that sometimes can be difficult to understand or remember. LOD, LOI…what do they all mean? Before we even attempt to explain the difference between them and what they mean, we need to know what they stand for:

  • LOD: Level of Detail, demonstrates the graphical content of models
  • LOI: Level of Information, demonstrates the non-graphical content of models

As you know LOD 100, LOD 200, or LOD 300 are inputs based on geometry. LOD 400 can be achieved in the model from visual observations on the sitemap. The following examples will help you easily understand the difference between LOD and LOI.

LOD 1 – A Mass Model

The LOD 1 will be a Mass Model of the building, place, or structure. It will not contain doors or windows. This type of model is mainly the surface model.


LOD 2 – Shell and Core Model

The LOD2 model will include main structural elements and the penetrations of the building such as floor panels, columns, beams, and basic structures of doors, windows.


LOD 3 – Standard Survey Model

The LOD 3 model also consists of main Architectural details. The basic family can be created for doors and windows. Besides, the main objects can be modeled in the concept design. With LOD 3, the modeler also can create a simple model of the fixed furniture and accessories if required.


LOD 4 – Detailed Survey Model

The LOD 4 model will contain Architectural elements and Structural details. The primary and auxiliary services can be modeled at a highly detailed level. Additional details may include baseboards, architecture, rails, and furnaces or surface.


2. The benefits of accurate modeling according to LOD and LOI requirements

The level of detail is ranged from simple to complex in terms of geometry (LOD) and information (LOI).

So the 3D BIM models meeting the LOD and LOI requirements will enable you to have accurate and sufficient information on the BIM objects. This is of value to your next designing stage such as exporting drawings or extracting information from the model.

  • LOD 100 – Concept design
  • LOD 200 – Schematic design
  • LOD 300 – Detailed design
  • LOD 400 – Fabrication and assembly
  • LOD 500 – As-built model

Example 1: The wall requires LOD 1: The external walls are modeled as a block object

Example of LOD 1

Example 2: The wall requires LOD 2: The structural walls are modeled with an overall thickness.

Example of LOD 2

Example 3: The wall requires LOD 3: All walls are modeled with overall thickness.

Example of LOD 3

Example 4: The wall requires LOD 4: All walls are modeled with overall thickness and decorative details.

Example of LOD 4

The next example will help you know more about the LOD and LOI requirements of the MEP system:

  • LOD2: The modeler just needs to create the model of huge equipment as required;
  • LOD3:
    + Duct, Pipe, Cable tray will be modeled according to the fitting. For Valve, if the client requires the LOD 3, the modeler will create the model of the valve’s crank into a plane, but not include the bolts.
    + For mechanical equipment, the modeler will just need to create the model of the main structural objects, not including bolts, and small pipes. The MEP system will not include a hanger, except for being required.
  • LOD4: Create the 3D model of the MEP elements as required with a high level of detail: Duct, Pipe, Cable tray will be modeled according to the fitting. For Valve, if the client requires LOD 4, the modeler will create a detailed model of the valve’s crank and the bolts.

Example of MEP elements

3. How do we meet the LOD and LOI requirements?

For each point cloud to BIM project, we should clarify the LOD and LOI requirements from the client at the beginning stage of the project. Not just stop at the model level, you need to clearly understand the LOD and LOI requirements of each object.

In the process of modeling, the modeler might use the 3D view, the section to check LOD, and use Schedule to analyze LOI requirements. Besides, the modeler themselves should improve their knowledge and stay updated with the information on LOD and LOI.

LOD requirement

A BIM project can have various LOD and LOI requirements that are applied to each area or position. So it’s necessary for the modeler to understand them to model exactly.

In conclusion

The terms have been devised as a means to help communication within a BIM project run more smoothly. So it’s important to understand and meet the exact LOD and LOI requirements. Hopefully, you’ll have a better understanding of what this means. If you still have questions on the topic, don’t hesitate to get in touch with us.

At ViBIM, we specialize in the delivery of BIM services and are confident to help you bring more value to your projects.